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14 articles matched your search for the keywords:
Creativity, Social Psychology, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Social Systems, Cultural Evolution, Information Theory

An Integrated Approach to Simulating Behavioural Processes: a Case Study of the Lock-in of Consumption Patterns

Marco A. Janssen and Wander Jager
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 2 (2) 2

Kyeywords: Lock-In, Multi-Agent Modelling, Social Psychology, Need Satisfaction, Consumer Behaviour
Abstract: Lock-in denotes a phenomenon of monopolistic dominating technologies or consumer goods in a certain market. These lock-ins cannot be explained by superior characteristics of the good or technology. Previous studies mainly used probabilistic models to study lock-in effects. In this paper an integrated conceptual model of consumer behaviour is used to identify relevant processes of lock-in dynamics of consumption patterns. An agent-based model is developed to simulate consumats, artificial consumers, who are confronted with two similar products. We found two types of lock-in, namely, a spatial lock-in and a global level lock-in. The spatial lock-in related to the spatial patterns that occur in consumption patterns and relates to the satisfaction of the need for identity. The global lock-in relates to price effects and occurs only if individual preferences are not significantly weighted in the cognitive processing.

Topology, Metric and Dynamics of Social Systems

Jürgen Klüver and Jörn Schmidt
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 2 (3) 7

Kyeywords: Boolean Networks, Social Systems, Geometry, Dynamics, Theoretical Sociology, Control Parameters
Abstract: Structurally orientated sociologists tend to neglect the dynamical aspects of social systems, whereas theorists of social systems emphasize systems dynamics but only rarely analyze structural features of their domains. The aim of this paper is to integrate dynamical and structural approaches by means of the analysis of particular artificial systems, namely logical or Boolean networks, and their geometry. It is well known that the dynamics of Boolean networks and the logically similar cellular automata are governed by control parameters. Less well known is the fact that the geometry of these artificial systems, understood as their topology and metric, also contain specific control parameters. These "geometrical" control parameters can be expressed using graph theoretical concepts such as the density of graphs or geodetical properties. Further, the dynamics of those artificial systems depend on the values for the geometrical parameters. These mathematical investigations are quite important for social research: On the one hand, social dynamics and social structure appear to be two closely related aspects of social reality; on the other hand, a general hypothesis may be drawn from our results, namely that social structural inequality yields simple dynamics whereas social equality gives rise to complex dynamics. Therefore the dynamical complexity of modern democratic societies may be in part due to their democratic structures.

Cultural Transmission Between and Within Generations

Alberto Acerbi and Domenico Parisi
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 9 (1) 9

Kyeywords: Artificial Life, Cultural Transmission, Cultural Evolution, Horizontal Cultural Transmission
Abstract: We describe some simulations that compare cultural transmission between and within generations (inter-generational vs intra-generational transmission) in populations of embodied agents controlled by neural networks. Our results suggest that intra-generational transmission has the role of adding variability to the evolutionary process and that this function seems particularly useful when the population lives in a rapidly changing environment. Adaptation to environmental change is slower if cultural transmission is purely inter-generational while it is faster if a certain amount of intra-generational cultural transmission makes it possible to remove earlier and no longer suitable behaviors, facilitating the emergence of new and more appropriate ones.

Socionics: Sociological Concepts for Social Systems of Artificial (and Human) Agents

Thomas Malsch and Ingo Schulz-Schaeffer
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 10 (1) 11

Kyeywords: Socionics, Sociology, Multi-Agent Systems, Artificial Social Systems, Hybrid Systems, Social Simulation
Abstract: Socionics is an interdisciplinary approach with the objective to use sociological knowledge about the structures, mechanisms and processes of social interaction and social communication as a source of inspiration for the development of multi-agent systems, both for the purposes of engineering applications and of social theory construction and social simulation. The approach has been spelled out from 1998 on within the Socionics priority program funded by the German National research foundation. This special issue of the JASSS presents research results from five interdisciplinary projects of the Socionics program. The introduction gives an overview over the basic ideas of the Socionics approach and summarizes the work of these projects.

The Empirical Semantics Approach to Communication Structure Learning and Usage: Individualistic Vs. Systemic Views

Matthias Nickles, Michael Rovatsos, Marco Schmitt, Wilfried Brauer, Felix Fischer, Thomas Malsch, Kai Paetow and Gerhard Weiss
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 10 (1) 5

Kyeywords: Agent Communication, Open Multiagent Systems, Social Systems Theory, Symbolic Interactionism, Pragmatism, Computational Pragmatics
Abstract: In open systems of artificial agents, the meaning of communication in part emerges from ongoing interaction processes. In this paper, we present the empirical semantics approach to inductive derivation of communication semantics that can be used to derive this emergent semantics of communication from observations. The approach comes in two complementary variants: One uses social systems theory, focusing on system expectation structures and global utility maximisation, and the other is based on symbolic interactionism, focusing on the viewpoint and utility maximisation of the individual agent. Both these frameworks make use of the insight that the most general meaning of agent utterances lies in their expectable consequences in terms of observable events, and thus they strongly demarcate themselves from traditional approaches to the semantics and pragmatics of agent communication languages.

Culture Outsmarts Nature in the Evolution of Cooperation

Klaus Jaffe and Roberto Cipriani
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 10 (1) 7

Kyeywords: Social Simulation, Interactions, Group Size, Selfish Heard, Cultural Evolution, Biological Evolution
Abstract: A one dimensional cellular automata model describes the evolutionary dynamics of cooperation when grouping by cooperators provides protection against predation. It is used to compare the dynamics of evolution of cooperation in three settings. G: only vertical transmission of information is allowed, as an analogy of genetic evolution with heredity; H: only horizontal information transfer is simulated, through diffusion of the majority\'s opinion, as an analogy of opinion dynamics or social learning; and C: analogy of cultural evolution, where information is transmitted both horizontally (H) and vertically (V) so that learned behavior can be transmitted to offspring. The results show that the prevalence of cooperative behavior depends on the costs and benefits of cooperation so that: a- cooperation becomes the dominant behavior, even in the presence of free-riders (i.e., non-cooperative obtaining benefits from the cooperation of others), under all scenarios, if the benefits of cooperation compensate for its cost; b- G is more susceptible to selection pressure than H achieving a closer adaptation to the fitness landscape; c- evolution of cooperative behavior in H is less sensitive to the cost of cooperation than in G; d- C achieves higher levels of cooperation than the other alternatives at low costs, whereas H does it at high costs. The results suggest that a synergy between H and V is elicited that makes the evolution of cooperation much more likely under cultural evolution than under the hereditary kind where only V is present.

Digested Information as an Information Theoretic Motivation for Social Interaction

Christoph Salge and Daniel Polani
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 14 (1) 5

Kyeywords: Information Theory, Collective Behaviour, Inadvertent Social Information, Infotaxis, Digested Information, Bayesian Update
Abstract: Within a universal agent-world interaction framework, based on Information Theory and Causal Bayesian Networks, we demonstrate how every agent that needs to acquire relevant information in regard to its strategy selection will automatically inject part of this information back into the environment. We introduce the concept of 'Digested Information' which both quantifies, and explains this phenomenon. Based on the properties of digested information, especially the high density of relevant information in other agents actions, we outline how this could motivate the development of low level social interaction mechanisms, such as the ability to detect other agents.

Old and Young Individuals' Role in Cultural Change

Alberto Acerbi, Stefano Ghirlanda and Magnus Enquist
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 15 (4) 1

Kyeywords: Cultural Evolution, Cultural Transmission, Cultural Change, Age, Age-Biased Transmission, Openness
Abstract: We explore the impact of age on cultural change through simulations of cultural evolution. Our simulations show that common observations about the relationship between old and young naturally emerge from repeated cultural learning. In particular, young individuals are more open to learn than older individuals, they are less effective as cultural models, and they possess less cultural traits. We also show that, being more open to learning, young individuals are an important source of cultural change. Cultural change, however, is faster in populations with both young and old. A relatively large share of older individuals, in fact, allows a population to retain more culture, and a large culture can change in more directions than a small culture. For the same reason, considering age-biased cultural transmission in an overlapping generations model, cultural evolution is slower when individuals interact preferentially with models of similar age than when they mainly interact with older models.

An Agent-Based Simulation of Destigmatization (DSIM): Introducing a Contact Theory and Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Approach

Dietmar Heinke, Gregory Carslaw and Julie Christian
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 16 (4) 10

Kyeywords: Destigmatization, Intergroup Contact, Social Psychology
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a novel approach to exploring the destimgatisation process, an agent-based model called the destigmatization model (DSIM). In the DSIM, we demonstrate that, even if individual interactions (intergroup contact) are based on rules of the self-fulfilling prophecy, it can lead to destigmatisation. In a second study, we empirically verify a prediction that there is a positive relationship between minority group size and perceived stigmatization. Finally, we confirm that DSIM successfully implements Allport's (1954) four moderators, in turn decreasing the level of perceived stigma of the minority group. Interestingly, however, some of Allport's moderators influence the speed of destigmatisation, rather than having a lasting impact on the process of prejudice reduction. The findings suggest that moderators of 'intergroup contact' can function in one of two ways, either by improving how much contact helps to reduce stigmatization or by improving how quickly destigmatization can occur.

If We Work Together, I Will Have Greater Power: Coalitions in Networked Innovation

Rory Sie, Peter B. Sloep and Marlies Bitter-Rijpkema
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 17 (1) 3

Kyeywords: Coalition Formation, Networked Innovation, Creativity, Simulation of Social Networks, Social Behaviour, Complex Networks
Abstract: The present article uses agent-based social simulation to study rational behaviour in networked innovation. A simulation model that includes network characteristics and network participant’s characteristics is run using parameter sweeping, yielding 1450 simulation cases. The notion of coalitions was used to denote partnerships in networked innovation. Coalitions compete against each other and several variables were observed for winning coalitions. Close analysis of the variations and their influence on the average power per winning coalition was analysed using stepwise multiple regression analysis. The analysis brought forward two main conclusions. First, as average betweenness centrality per winning coalition increases, the average power per winning coalition decreases. This implies that having high betweenness centrality as a network participant makes it easier to build a successful coalition, as a coalition needs lower average power to succeed. Second, as the number of network participants increases, the average power per winning coalition decreases. This implies that in a larger network, it may be easier to form a successful coalition. The results form the basis for the development of a utility-based recommendation system that helps people choose optimal partners in an innovation network.

Simulating Creativity from a Systems Perspective: CRESY

Cara H. Kahl and Hans Hansen
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 18 (1) 4

Kyeywords: Creativity, Social Psychology, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Social Systems, Cultural Evolution, Information Theory
Abstract: Psychological research on human creativity focuses primarily on individual creative performance. Assessing creative performance is, however, also a matter of expert evaluation. Few psychological studies model this aspect explicitly as a human process, let alone measure creativity longitudinally. An agent-based model was built to explore the effects contextual factors such as evaluation and temporality have on creativity. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi’s systems perspective of creativity is used as the model’s framework, and stylized facts from the domain of creativity research in psychology provide the model’s contents. Theoretical experimentation with the model indicated evaluators and their selection criteria play a bearing role in constructing human creativity. This insight has major implications for designing future creativity research in psychology.

Self-Policing Through Norm Internalization: A Cognitive Solution to the Tragedy of the Digital Commons in Social Networks

Daniel Villatoro, Giulia Andrighetto, Rosaria Conte and Jordi Sabater-Mir
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 18 (2) 2

Kyeywords: Self-Organisation, Norms, Emergent Behavior, Cognitive Modelling, Artificial Social Systems
Abstract: In the seminal work "An Evolutionary Approach to Norms", Axelrod identified internalization as one of the key mechanisms that supports the spreading and stabilization of norms. But how does this process work? This paper advocates a rich cognitive model of different types, degrees and factors of norm internalization. Rather than a none-or-all phenomenon, we claim that norm internalization is a dynamic process, whose deepest step occurs when norms are complied with thoughtlessly. In order to implement a theoretical model of internalization and check its effectiveness in sustaining social norms and promoting cooperation, a simulated web-service distributed market has been designed, where both services and agents' tasks are dynamically assigned. Internalizers are compared with agents whose behaviour is driven only by self-interested motivations. Simulation findings show that in dynamic unpredictable scenarios, internalizers prove more adaptive and achieve higher level of cooperation than agents whose decision-making is based only on utility calculation.

Modeling Cultural Dissemination and Divergence Between Rural and Urban Regions

Nicholas LaBerge, Aria Chaderjian, Victor Ginelli, Margrethe Jebsen and Adam Landsberg
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 23 (4) 3

Kyeywords: Cultural Evolution, Cultural Transmission, Opinion Dynamics, Agent-Based Modeling, Cultural Dissemination
Abstract: The process by which beliefs, opinions, and other individual, socially malleable attributes spread across a society, known as "cultural dissemination," is a broadly recognized concept among sociologists and political scientists. Yet fundamental aspects of how this process can ultimately lead to cultural divergences between rural and urban segments of society are currently poorly understood. This article uses an agent-based model to isolate and analyze one very basic yet essential facet of this issue, namely, the question of how the intrinsic differences in urban and rural population densities influence the levels of cultural homogeneity/heterogeneity that emerge within each region. Because urban and rural cultures do not develop in isolation from one another, the dynamical interplay between the two is of particular import in their evolution. It is found that, in urban areas, the relatively high number of local neighbors with whom one can interact tends to promote cultural homogeneity in both urban and rural regions. Moreover, and rather surprisingly, the higher frequency of potential interactions with neighbors within urban regions promotes homogeneity in urban regions but tends to drive rural regions towards greater levels of heterogeneity.

Cultural Dissemination: An Agent-Based Model with Social Influence

Ngan Nguyen, Hongfei Chen, Benjamin Jin, Walker Quinn, Conrad Tyler and Adam Landsberg
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 24 (4) 5

Kyeywords: Cultural Dissemination, Agent-Based Modeling, Cultural Evolution, Opinion Dynamics, Cultural Transmission, Bounded Confidence Models
Abstract: We study cultural dissemination in the context of an Axelrod-like agent-based model describing the spread of cultural traits across a society, with an added element of social influence. This modification produces absorbing states exhibiting greater variation in number and size of distinct cultural regions compared to the original Axelrod model, and we identify the mechanism responsible for this amplification in heterogeneity. We develop several new metrics to quantitatively characterize the heterogeneity and geometric qualities of these absorbing states. Additionally, we examine the dynamical approach to absorbing states in both our Social Influence Model as well as the Axelrod Model, which not only yields interesting insights into the differences in behavior of the two models over time, but also provides a more comprehensive view into the behavior of Axelrod's original model. The quantitative metrics introduced in this paper have broad potential applicability across a large variety of agent-based cultural dissemination models.