4 articles matched your search for
Computational Models of Science, Individual-Based Modelling, Scientific Method, Belief Systems, Belief Verification, Idealism
Uri Wilensky and William Rand
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 10 (4) 2
Kyeywords: Replication, Agent-Based Modeling, Verification, Validation, Scientific Method, Ethnocentrism
Abstract: Scientists have increasingly employed computer models in their work. Recent years have seen a proliferation of agent-based models in the natural and social sciences. But with the exception of a few "classic" models, most of these models have never been replicated by anyone but the original developer. As replication is a critical component of the scientific method and a core practice of scientists, we argue herein for an increased practice of replication in the agent-based modeling community, and for widespread discussion of the issues surrounding replication. We begin by clarifying the concept of replication as it applies to ABM. Furthermore we argue that replication may have even greater benefits when applied to computational models than when applied to physical experiments. Replication of computational models affects model verification and validation and fosters shared understanding about modeling decisions. To facilitate replication, we must create standards for both how to replicate models and how to evaluate the replication. In this paper, we present a case study of our own attempt to replicate a classic agent-based model. We begin by describing an agent-based model from political science that was developed by Axelrod and Hammond. We then detail our effort to replicate that model and the challenges that arose in recreating the model and in determining if the replication was successful. We conclude this paper by discussing issues for (1) researchers attempting to replicate models and (2) researchers developing models in order to facilitate the replication of their results.
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 14 (4) 5
Kyeywords: Computational Models of Science, Individual-Based Modelling, Scientific Method, Belief Systems, Belief Verification, Idealism
Abstract: Two abstract and computational models of the long-term process of science are proposed: AMS and HAMS. An outline specification of each model is given and the relationship between them explained. AMS takes an Olympian (\"artificial world\") view of science and its processes. HAMS is simpler and relatively more abstract and comprises only a small set of core processes. A first implementation of HAMS is described. How AMS and HAMS might be validated and used in experimental investigations is considered including problems that might arise. Further work is proposed. A brief coda concerns a related model of science formulated from an idealist rather than a materialist perspective.
Sven Banisch and Eckehard Olbrich
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 24 (1) 1
Kyeywords: Argument Communication Theory, Opinion Dynamics, Polarisation, Ideological Alignment, Belief Systems, Cognitive-Evaluative Maps
Abstract: This multi-level model of opinion formation considers that attitudes on diﬀerent issues are usually not independent. In the model, agents exchange beliefs regarding a series of facts. A cognitive structure of evaluative associations links diﬀerent (partially overlapping) sets of facts on diﬀerent political issues and determines agents’ attitudinal positions in a way borrowed from expectancy value theory. If agents preferentially interact with other agents who hold similar attitudes on one or several issues, this leads to biased argument pools and increasing polarization in the sense that groups of agents selectively believe in distinct subsets of facts. Besides the emergence of a bi-modal distribution of opinions on single issues as most previous opinion polarization models address, our model also accounts for the alignment of attitudes across several issues along ideological dimensions.
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 25 (1) 4
Kyeywords: Polarization, Opinion Dynamics, Argumentation Strategies, Arguments, Belief Systems
Abstract: Can arguments and their properties influence the development of issue polarisation in debates among artificial agents? This paper presents an agent-based model of debates with logical constraints based on the theory of dialectical structures. Simulations on this model reveal that the exchange of arguments can drive polarisation even without social influence, and that the usage of different argumentation strategies can influence the obtained levels of polarisation.