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12 articles matched your search for the keywords:
Philosophy of Science, Sociology of Science, Computer Simulation

An Open Mind is Not an Empty Mind: Experiments in the Meta-Noosphere

David Hales
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 1 (4) 2

Kyeywords: Artificial Societies, Computer Simulation, Memetics, Meta-Memes
Abstract: Using the "meme" conception (Dawkins 1976) of cultural transmission and computer simulations, an exploration is made of the relationship between agents, their beliefs about their environment, communication of those beliefs, and the global behaviours that emerge in a simple artificial society. This paper builds on previous work using the Minimeme model (Bura 1994). The model is extended to incorporate open-mindedness meta-memes (memes about memes). In the scenarios presented such meta-memes have dramatic effects, increasing the optimality of population distribution and the accuracy of existing beliefs. It is argued that artifical society experimentation offers a potentially fruitful response to the inherent problems of building new meme theory.

Simulating Correctional Disturbances: the Application of Organization Control Theory to Correctional Organizations Via Computer Simulation

Steven Patrick, Patricia Dorman and Robert Marsh
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 2 (1) 1

Kyeywords: Computer Simulation, Prison Management, Prison Riots, Organizational Control, Deterministic Systems, General Systems Theory
Abstract: Inmate group behavior is a complex phenomenon that many researchers have attempted to understand. Most of the individual theories applied to this issue have had limited success. This work uses computer simulation to apply a complex theory of organizational control to the issue of inmate group behavior that incorporates all the major theoretical components found in the individual theories. The complete theory is first presented and then basic simulation results are discussed. The findings show that the simulated theory produced results that are empirically realistic. The control processes used by prisons generally produce compliance from inmates but these same control processes result in episodic periods of negative inmate group behavior. These initial results point to the promise of computer simulation for understanding complex control issues in ways simpler theories cannot.

Stylised Facts and the Contribution of Simulation to the Economic Analysis of Budgeting

Bernd-O. Heine, Matthias Meyer and Oliver Strangfeld
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 8 (4) 4

Kyeywords: Computer Simulation, Stylised Facts, Methodology, Groves Mechanism, Collusion, Game Theory
Abstract: The application of computer simulation as a research method raises two important questions: (1) Does simulation really offer added value over established methods? (2) How can the danger of arbitrariness caused by the extended modelling possibilities be minimised? We present the concept of stylised facts as a methodological basis for approaching these questions systematically. In particular, stylised facts provide a point of reference for a comparative analysis of models intended to explain an observable phenomenon. This is shown with reference to a recent discussion in the "economic analysis of accounting" literature where established methods, i.e. game theory, as well as computer simulations are used: the susceptibility of the "Groves mechanism" to collusion. Initially, we identify six stylised facts on the stability of collusion in empirical studies. These facts serve as a basis for the subsequent comparison of four theoretical models with reference to the above questions: (1) We find that the simulation models of Krapp and Deliano offer added value in comparison to the game theoretical models. They can be related to more stylised facts, achieve a better reproduction and exhibit far greater potential for incorporating yet unaddressed stylised facts. (2) Considered in the light of the stylised facts to which the models can be related, Deliano's simulation model exhibits considerable arbitrariness in model design and lacks information on its robustness. In contrast, Krapp demonstrates that this problem is not inherent to the method. His simulation model methodically extends its game theoretical predecessors, leaving little room for arbitrary model design or questionable parameter calibration. All in all, the stylisedfactsconcept proved to be very useful in dealing with the questions simulation researchers are confronted with. Moreover, a "research landscape" emerges from the derived stylised facts pinpointing issues yet to be addressed.

Better Be Convincing or Better Be Stylish? a Theory Based Multi-Agent Simulation to Explain Minority Influence in Groups Via Arguments or Via Peripheral Cues

Hans-Joachim Mosler
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 9 (3) 4

Kyeywords: Social Influences, Persuasion Processes, Group Processes, Minority Influence, Computer Simulation, Modelling, Theory Verification, Simulation Experiments
Abstract: Very often in the history of mankind, social changes took place because a minority was successful in persuading the dominant majority of a new idea. Social psychology provides empirically well-founded theories of social influence that can explain the power of minorities at individual level. In this contribution, we present an agent-based computer simulation of one such theory, the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM). After introducing the theoretical background and our agent model, we present three simulation experiments that confirm past laboratory research but also go beyond its findings by adopting the method of computer simulation. First, we found that even a minority with low argument quality can be successful as long as it has positive peripheral cues. Second, our results suggest that a higher personal relevance of a topic for the majority led it to be more receptive to minority influence only when the minority showed neutral peripheral cues and very good arguments. Third, we found evidence that a neutral or only slightly biased majority is influenced more easily than a strongly biased one. To sum up, we consider these results to illustrate the notion that a well-presented, comprehensible and valid computer simulation provides a useful tool for theory development and application in an exploratory manner as long as it is well founded in terms of the model and theory.

Simulating Gender Stratification

James F. Robison-Cox, Richard F. Martell and Cynthia G. Emrich
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 10 (3) 8

Kyeywords: Glass Ceiling, Gender Stratification, Promotion, Performance Evaluation Bias, Computer Simulation
Abstract: The simulation of promotional competitions in corporations described herein allows comparisons of suggested reasons for the paucity of women in the highest level of corporate management. Runs with small, medium and large-sized companies all give similar results. The strongest effect is evidenced when men are given a bonus in performance evaluations. Similar stratification is observed when men's scores are drawn from a distribution with increased variance. Other explanations (increased female attrition, career delays for women, line-staff divisions, and external labor market) do not, by themselves produce strong gender stratification, but could add to that produced by biased evaluations.

Spatial Dynamics of Pandemic Influenza in a Massive Artificial Society

Phillip Stroud, Sara Del Valle, Stephen Sydoriak, Jane Riese and Susan Mniszewski
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 10 (4) 9

Kyeywords: Agent Based Modeling, Computer Simulation, Epidemic Simulation, Public Health Policy
Abstract: EpiSimS is a massive simulation of the movements, activities, and social interactions of individuals in realistic synthetic populations, and of the dynamics of contagious disease spread on the resulting social contact network. This paper describes the assumptions and methodology in the EpiSimS model. It also describes and presents a simulation of the spatial dynamics of pandemic influenza in an artificial society constructed to match the demographics of southern California. As an example of the utility of the massive simulation approach, we demonstrate a strong correlation between local demographic characteristics and pandemic severity, which gives rise to previously unanticipated spatial pandemic hotspots. In particular, the average household size in a census tract is strongly correlated with the clinical attack rate computed by the simulation. Public heath agencies with responsibility for communities having relatively high population per household should expect to be more severely hit by a pandemic.

Contra Epstein, Good Explanations Predict

Nicholas S. Thompson and Patrick Derr
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 12 (1) 9

Kyeywords: ABM, Agent Based Model, Modeling, Prediction, Explanation, Philosophy of Science
Abstract: Epstein has argued that an explanation\'s capacity to make predictions should play a minor role in its evaluation . This view contradicts centuries of scientific practice and, at least, decades of philosophy of science. We argue that the view is not only unfounded but seems to arise from a mistaken fear that ABM models are in need of defense against the criticism that they don\'t necessarily forecast events in the natural or social world.

Zaller-Deffuant Model of Mass Opinion

Krzysztof Malarz, Piotr Gronek and Krzysztof Kulakowski
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 14 (1) 2

Kyeywords: Mass Opinion; Computer Simulations; Social Networks;
Abstract: Recent formulation of the Zaller model of mass opinion is generalized to include the interaction between agents. The mechanism of interaction is close to the bounded confidence model. The outcome of the simulation is the probability distribution of opinions on a given issue as dependent on the mental capacity of agents. Former result was that a small capacity leads to a strong belief. Here we show that an intensive interaction between agents also leads to a consensus, accepted without doubts.

A Social Process in Science and its Content in a Simulation Program

Wolfgang Balzer and Klaus Manhart
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 14 (4) 11

Kyeywords: Social Simulation, Process, Science, Theory, Social Science, Philosophy of Science
Abstract: We lay open a position concerning the difference between scientific processes and processes in science. Not all processes in science are scientific. This leads into the center of social simulation. More scientific theories should be incorporated in social simulations, and this should lead to more united structural approaches.

Computer Simulation and Emergent Reliability in Science

Kevin Zollman
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 14 (4) 15

Kyeywords: Philosophy of Science, Sociology of Science, Computer Simulation
Abstract: While the popular image of scientists portrays them as objective, dispassionate observers of nature, actual scientists rarely are. It is not really known to what extent these individual departures from the scientific ideal effects the reliability of the scientific community. This paper suggests a number of concrete projects which help to determine this relationship.

Why Simulate? To Develop a Mental Model

Andrzej Nowak, Agnieszka Rychwalska and Wojciech Borkowski
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 16 (3) 12

Kyeywords: Computer Simulations, Mental Models, Benefits of Simulations, Recommendations for Modeling
Abstract: Computer simulations, one of the most powerful tools of science, have many uses. This paper concentrates on the benefits to the social science researcher. Based on our, somewhat paradoxical experiences we had when working with computer simulations, we argue that the main benefit for the researchers who work with computer simulations is to develop a mental model of the abstract process they are simulating. The development of a mental model results in a deeper understating of the process and in the capacity to predict both the behavior of the system and its reaction to changes of control parameters and interventions. By internalizing computer simulations as a mental model, however, the researcher also internalizes the limitations of the simulation. Limitations of the computer simulation may translate into unconscious constrains in thinking when using the mental model. This perspective offers new recommendations for the development of computer simulations and highlights the importance of visualization. The recommendations are different from the recommendations for developing efficient and fast running simulations; for example, to visualize the dynamics of the process it may be better for the program to run slowly.

Computer-Based Global Models: From Early Experiences to Complex Systems

Rodrigo Castro and Pablo Jacovkis
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 18 (1) 13

Kyeywords: Global Models, Social Processes, Complex Systems, History of Science, Computer Simulation, Latin American Modeling
Abstract: During the 1960s but mainly in the 1970s, large mathematical dynamic global models were implemented in computers to simulate the entire world, or large portions of it. Several different but interrelated subjects were considered simultaneously, and their variables evolved over time in an attempt to forecast the future, considering decades as time horizons. Global models continued to be developed while evidencing an increasing bias towards environmental aspects, or at least the public impact of models with such a focus became prevalent. In this paper we analyze the early evolution of computer-based global modeling and provide insights on less known pioneering works by South American modelers in the 1960s (Varsavsky and collaborators). We revisit relevant methodological aspects and discuss how they influenced different modeling endeavors. Finally, we overview how distinctive systemic approaches in global modeling evolved into the currently well-established discipline of complex systems.