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Social Relationships and the Emergence of Social Networks
By: Alistair Sutcliffe, Di Wang, Robin Dunbar, Volume 15 (4)
Abstract: In complex social systems such as those of many mammals, including humans, groups (and hence ego-centric social networks) are commonly structured in discrete layers. We describe a computational model for the development of social relationships based on agents' strategies for social interaction that favour more less-intense, or fewer more-intense partners. A trust-related process controls the formation and decay of relationships as a function of interaction frequency, the history of interaction, and the agents' strategies. A good fit of the observed layers of human social networks was found acr ...

Modeling Sanction Choices on Fraudulent Benefit Exchanges in Public Service Delivery
By: Yushim Kim, Wei Zhong, Yongwan Chun, Volume 16 (2)
Abstract: Public service delivery programs are not free from players' opportunistic behaviors, such as fraudulent benefit exchanges. The standard methods used to detect such misbehaviors are static, less effective in uncovering interactions between corrupt agents, and easy to evade because of corrupt agents' familiarity with detection procedures. Current fraud detection efforts do not match the dynamics and adaptive processes they are supposed to monitor and regulate. In this paper, an agent-based simulation model is built to gain insight on sanction choices to deter fraudulent activities in public serv ...

The Production of Step-Level Public Goods in Structured Social Networks: An Agent-Based Simulation
By: Francisco J. León-Medina, Francisco José Miguel Quesada, Vanessa Alcaide Lozano, Volume 17 (1)
Abstract: This paper presents a multi-agent simulation of the production of step-level public goods in social networks. In previous public goods experimental research the design of the sequence ordering of decisions have been limited because of the necessity of simplicity taking priority over realism, which means they never accurately reproduce the social structure that constrains the available information. Multi-agent simulation can help us to overcome this limitation. In our model, agents are placed in 230 different networks and each networks’ success rates are analyzed. We find that some network at ...

Punishment Mechanisms and Their Effect on Cooperation: A Simulation Study
By: Mike Farjam, Marco Faillo, Ida Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, Pim Haselager, Volume 18 (1)
Abstract: In social dilemmas punishment costs resources, not just from the one who is punished but often also from the punisher and society. Reciprocity on the other side is known to lead to cooperation without the costs of punishment. The questions at hand are whether punishment brings advantages besides its costs, and how its negative side-effects can be reduced to a minimum in an environment populated by agents adopting a form of reciprocity. Various punishment mechanisms have been studied in the economic literature such as unrestricted punishment, legitimate punishment, cooperative punishment, and t ...

The Blessing of Sexuality: Evolution of Altruism with Mating Preference
By: Tanzhe Tang, Hang Ye, Volume 19 (2)
Abstract: Current simulation practices in artificial societies typically ignore the contribution of sexuality as a driving force for the evolution of prosocial behaviours. As recent researches in biology and genetics argued, sexual attractiveness, via the method of sexual selection, can explain many aspects of the second-order social dilemma. The basic hypothesis is that altruism is a sexually attractive virtue. To introduce the hypothesis into the analysis of human altruism, we employ the concepts of altruistic punishment and the behaviour-based sexual attractiveness to develop a gender-based evolution ...

Evolution of Government’s Performance Through Yardstick Competition in the Spatial Game of Gubernatorial Elections
By: Tanzhe Tang, Ke Zeng, Volume 21 (2)
Abstract: Yardstick Competition is a unique feature of gubernatorial elections and may have a paramount role in the development of democracy and local government’s performance. This paper investigates the behaviours of governors and voters in an evolutionary game of gubernatorial election by introducing the spatial simulation process where voters can make comparisons between the incumbent and neighboring politicians. Based on the model, we portray the evolutionary process and topologies of local governments’ performances in federal systems. In the baseline model, we find that the variance of governo ...