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Simulating the Social Processes of Science
By: Bruce Edmonds, Nigel Gilbert, Petra Ahrweiler, Andrea Scharnhorst, Volume 14 (4)
Abstract: Science is the result of a substantially social process. That is, science relies on many inter-personal processes, including: selection and communication of research findings, discussion of method, checking and judgement of others' research, development of norms of scientific behaviour, organisation of the application of specialist skills/tools, and the organisation of each field (e.g. allocation of funding). An isolated individual, however clever and well resourced, would not produce science as we know it today. Furthermore, science is full of the social phenomena that are observed elsewhe ...

Individual Bias and Organizational Objectivity: An Agent-Based Simulation
By: Bo Xu, Renjing Liu, Weijiao Liu, Volume 17 (2)
Abstract: We introduce individual bias to the simulation model of exploration and exploitation and examine the joint effects of individual bias and other parameters, aiming to answer two questions: First, whether reducing individual bias can increase organizational objectivity? Second, whether measures, such as increasing organization size, can increase organizational objectivity in the presence of individual bias? Our results show that individual bias has both positive and negative effects, and reducing individual bias may be not beneficial when organization size is large or environment is turbulent. D ...