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(11 articles matched your search)

Economic Performance, Inter-Firm Relations and Local Institutional Engineering in a Computational Prototype of Industrial Districts

Flaminio Squazzoni and Riccardo Boero
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 5 (1) 1

Abstract: Industrial districts can be conceived as complex systems characterised by a network of interactions amongst heterogeneous, localised, functionally integrated and complementary firms. In a previous paper, we have introduced an industrial district computational prototype, showing that the economic performance of an industrial district proceeds to the form through which firms interact and co-ordinate each others. In this paper, we use such computational framework to experiment different options of “local institutional engineering”, trying to understand how specific “supporting institutions” could perform macro-collective activities, such as, i.e., technology research, transfer and information, improving the technological adaptation of firms. Is a district more than a simple aggregation of localised firms? What can explain the economic performance of firms localised into the same space? Could some options of “local institutional engineering” improve the performance of a district? Could such options set aside the problem of how firms dynamically interact? These are questions explored in this paper.

Micro Behavioural Attitudes and Macro Technological Adaptation in Industrial Districts: an Agent-Based Prototype

Riccardo Boero, Marco Castellani and Flaminio Squazzoni
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 7 (2) 1

Abstract: Industrial Districts (IDs) are complex productive systems based on an evolutionary network of heterogeneous, functionally integrated and complementary firms, which are within the same market and geographical space. Setting up a prototype, able to reproduce an idealised ID, we model cognitive processes underlying the behaviour of ID firms. ID firms are bounded rationality agents, able to process information coming from technology and market environment and from their relational contexts. They are able to evaluate such information and to transform it into courses of action, routinising their choices, monitoring the environment, categorising, typifying and comparing information. But they have bounded cognitive resources: attention, time and memory. We test two different settings: the first one shows ID firms behaving according to a self-centred attitude, while the second one shows ID firms behaving according to a social centred attitude. We study how such a strong difference at micro-level can affect at macro-level the technological adaptation of IDs.

Does Empirical Embeddedness Matter? Methodological Issues on Agent-Based Models for Analytical Social Science

Riccardo Boero and Flaminio Squazzoni
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 8 (4) 6

Abstract: The paper deals with the use of empirical data in social science agent-based models. Agent-based models are too often viewed just as highly abstract thought experiments conducted in artificial worlds, in which the purpose is to generate and not to test theoretical hypotheses in an empirical way. On the contrary, they should be viewed as models that need to be embedded into empirical data both to allow the calibration and the validation of their findings. As a consequence, the search for strategies to find and extract data from reality, and integrate agent-based models with other traditional empirical social science methods, such as qualitative, quantitative, experimental and participatory methods, becomes a fundamental step of the modelling process. The paper argues that the characteristics of the empirical target matter. According to characteristics of the target, ABMs can be differentiated into case-based models, typifications and theoretical abstractions. These differences pose different challenges for empirical data gathering, and imply the use of different validation strategies.

The Evolution of Altruism in Spatially Structured Populations

András Németh and Károly Takács
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 10 (3) 4

Abstract: The evolution of altruism in humans is still an unresolved puzzle. Helping other individuals is often kinship-based or reciprocal. Several examples show, however, that altruism goes beyond kinship and reciprocity and people are willing to support unrelated others even when this is at a cost and they receive nothing in exchange. Here we examine the evolution of this "pure" altruism with a focus on altruistic teaching. Teaching is modeled as a knowledge transfer which enhances the survival chances of the recipient, but reduces the reproductive efficiency of the provider. In an agent-based simulation we compare evolutionary success of genotypes that have willingness to teach with those who do not in two different scenarios: random matching of individuals and spatially structured populations. We show that if teaching ability is combined with an ability to learn and individuals encounter each other on a spatial proximity basis, altruistic teaching will attain evolutionary success in the population. Settlement of the population and accumulation of knowledge are emerging side-products of the evolution of altruism. In addition, in large populations our simple model also produces a counterintuitive result that increasing the value of knowledge keeps fewer altruists alive.

Why Bother with What Others Tell You? An Experimental Data-Driven Agent-Based Model

Riccardo Boero, Giangiacomo Bravo, Marco Castellani and Flaminio Squazzoni
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 13 (3) 6

Abstract: This paper investigates the relevance of reputation to improve the explorative capabilities of agents in uncertain environments. We have presented a laboratory experiment where sixty-four subjects were asked to take iterated economic investment decisions. An agent-based model based on their behavioural patterns replicated the experiment exactly. Exploring this experimentally grounded model, we studied the effects of various reputational mechanisms on explorative capabilities at a systemic level. The results showed that reputation mechanisms increase the agents\' capability for coping with uncertain environments more than individualistic atomistic exploration strategies, although the former does entail a certain amount of false information inside the system.

Social Simulation That 'Peers into Peer Review'

Flaminio Squazzoni and Károly Takács
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 14 (4) 3

Abstract: This article suggests to view peer review as a social interaction problem and shows reasons for social simulators to investigate it. Although essential for science, peer review is largely understudied and current attempts to reform it are not supported by scientific evidence. We suggest that there is room for social simulation to fill this gap by spotlighting social mechanisms behind peer review at the microscope and understanding their implications for the science system. In particular, social simulation could help to understand why voluntary peer review works at all, explore the relevance of social sanctions and reputational motives to increase the commitment of agents involved, cast light on the economic cost of this institution for the science system and understand the influence of signals and social networks in determining biases in the reviewing process. Finally, social simulation could help to test policy scenarios to maximise the efficacy and efficiency of various peer review schemes under specific circumstances and for everyone involved.

Is Social Simulation a Social Science Outstation? A Bibliometric Analysis of the Impact of JASSS

Flaminio Squazzoni and Niccolò Casnici
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 16 (1) 10

Abstract: This paper examines the bibliometric impact of JASSS on other ISI- and Scopus-indexed sources by examining inward and outward citations and their inter-relation. Given the prestige of JASSS, this analysis can measure the growth and dynamics of social simulation and give us an indication of the direction in which social simulation is moving. Results show that the impact of JASSS is higher in computer sciences, physics and ecology than it is in the social sciences, even though JASSS-indexed articles tend to be more concerned with social science-related topics. Looking at inter-journal citations revealed an interesting citation structure: JASSS collected its largest percentage of citations from non-social science-focused journals while directing more citations within its own articles toward works published in social science journals. On the one hand, this would confirm that social simulation is not yet recognised in the social science mainstream. On the other hand, this may indicate that the cross-disciplinary nature of JASSS allows it to promulgate social science theories and findings in other distant communities.

Opening the Black-Box of Peer Review: An Agent-Based Model of Scientist Behaviour

Flaminio Squazzoni and Claudio Gandelli
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 16 (2) 3

Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of referee behaviour on the quality and efficiency of peer review. We focused on the importance of reciprocity motives in ensuring cooperation between all involved parties. We modelled peer review as a process based on knowledge asymmetries and subject to evaluation bias. We built various simulation scenarios in which we tested different interaction conditions and author and referee behaviour. We found that reciprocity cannot always have per se a positive effect on the quality of peer review, as it may tend to increase evaluation bias. It can have a positive effect only when reciprocity motives are inspired by disinterested standards of fairness.

Different Modelling Purposes

Bruce Edmonds, Christophe Le Page, Mike Bithell, Edmund Chattoe-Brown, Volker Grimm, Ruth Meyer, Cristina Montañola-Sales, Paul Ormerod, Hilton Root and Flaminio Squazzoni
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 22 (3) 6

Abstract: How one builds, checks, validates and interprets a model depends on its ‘purpose’. This is true even if the same model code is used for different purposes. This means that a model built for one purpose but then used for another needs to be re-justified for the new purpose and this will probably mean it also has to be re-checked, re-validated and maybe even re-built in a different way. Here we review some of the different purposes for a simulation model of complex social phenomena, focusing on seven in particular: prediction, explanation, description, theoretical exploration, illustration, analogy, and social interaction. The paper looks at some of the implications in terms of the ways in which the intended purpose might fail. This analysis motivates some of the ways in which these ‘dangers’ might be avoided or mitigated. It also looks at the ways that a confusion of modelling purposes can fatally weaken modelling projects, whilst giving a false sense of their quality. These distinctions clarify some previous debates as to the best modelling strategy (e.g. KISS and KIDS). The paper ends with a plea for modellers to be clear concerning which purpose they are justifying their model against.

Relational Integration in Schools Through Seating Assignments

Márta Radó and Károly Takács
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 22 (4) 11

Abstract: Traditional desegregation policies have improved but not fully solved the problems associated with the reproduction of inequalities and interracial prejudice in schools. This is partly because social networks are inherently segregated within integrated schools and the benefits of contact have not fully materialized. Therefore, new kinds of policies are needed to further improve the situation. This paper investigates the consequences and efficiency of seating arrangements on academic outcomes and prejudice using an agent-based model that reflects real-life asymmetries. We model interpersonal dynamics and study behavior in the classroom in the hypothetical case of a single teacher who defines students’ seating arrangements. The model incorporates the mechanisms of peer influence on study behavior, on attitude formation, and homophilous selection in order to depict the interrelated dynamics of networks, behavior, and attitudes. We compare various seating arrangement scenarios and observe how GPA distribution and level of prejudice changes over time. Results highlight the advantages and disadvantages of seating strategies. In general, more heterogeneous deskmate pairs lead to a lower level of inequality and prejudice in the classroom, but this strategy does not favor talent management. Further, we evaluate outcomes compared to the absence of external intervention whereby students choose their own deskmates based on homophilous selection. Our model takes into account the fact that homophilous selection may be distorted due to the ‘Acting White’ phenomenon and pre-existing prejudice. Accounting for these factors implies slower convergence between advantaged and disadvantaged students.

Computational Models That Matter During a Global Pandemic Outbreak: A Call to Action

Flaminio Squazzoni, J. Gareth Polhill, Bruce Edmonds, Petra Ahrweiler, Patrycja Antosz, Geeske Scholz, Émile Chappin, Melania Borit, Harko Verhagen, Francesca Giardini and Nigel Gilbert
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 23 (2) 10

Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic is causing a dramatic loss of lives worldwide, challenging the sustainability of our health care systems, threatening economic meltdown, and putting pressure on the mental health of individuals (due to social distancing and lock-down measures). The pandemic is also posing severe challenges to the scientific community, with scholars under pressure to respond to policymakers’ demands for advice despite the absence of adequate, trusted data. Understanding the pandemic requires fine-grained data representing specific local conditions and the social reactions of individuals. While experts have built simulation models to estimate disease trajectories that may be enough to guide decision-makers to formulate policy measures to limit the epidemic, they do not cover the full behavioural and social complexity of societies under pandemic crisis. Modelling that has such a large potential impact upon people’s lives is a great responsibility. This paper calls on the scientific community to improve the transparency, access, and rigour of their models. It also calls on stakeholders to improve the rapidity with which data from trusted sources are released to the community (in a fully responsible manner). Responding to the pandemic is a stress test of our collaborative capacity and the social/economic value of research.