Citing this article

A standard form of citation of this article is:

Younger, Stephen (2005). 'Violence and Revenge in Egalitarian Societies'. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 8(4)11 <http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/8/4/11.html>.

The following can be copied and pasted into a Bibtex bibliography file, for use with the LaTeX text processor:

@article{younger2005,
title = \{Violence and Revenge in Egalitarian Societies},
author = \{Younger, Stephen},
journal = \{Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation},
ISSN = \{1460-7425},
volume = \{8},
number = \{4},
pages = \{11},
year = \{2005},
URL = \{http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/8/4/11.html},
keywords = \{Violence, Revenge, Egalitarian Culture, Homicide, Population Density, Tolerance, Food Supply},
abstract = \{Discrete agent simulation was used to investigate the role of violence and revenge in model egalitarian societies. A population of 100 agents inhabited a landscape of 20x20 squares containing five sources of food. Agents moved about the landscape in search of food, shared, stole, mated, produced offspring, and ultimately died of old age. Violence and revenge reduced the survival probability of the population and, for surviving populations, replaced hunger as the second leading cause of death after old age. Excluding large segments of the population from violence and revenge significantly improved survival rates. Tolerance to transgressions reduced the number of agents killed in revenge attacks. Higher population density increased the number of revenge deaths but also increased the survival rate of the total population. Decreasing the food supply for a fixed initial population resulted in more deaths due to violence and revenge. Flight from known aggressors enhanced the survival of the total population, at the expense of social cohesion. When killing had a positive social value the survival rate of the total population increased as the number of revenge killings decreased. These results are discussed in the context of ethnographic observations of a number of egalitarian societies.},
}

The following can be copied and pasted into a text file, which can then be imported into a reference database that supports imports using the RIS format, such as Reference Manager and EndNote.


TY - JOUR
TI - Violence and Revenge in Egalitarian Societies
AU - Younger, Stephen
Y1 - 2005/10/31
JO - Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation
SN - 1460-7425
VL - 8
IS - 4
SP - 11
UR - http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/8/4/11.html
KW - Violence
KW - Revenge
KW - Egalitarian Culture
KW - Homicide
KW - Population Density
KW - Tolerance
KW - Food Supply
N2 - Discrete agent simulation was used to investigate the role of violence and revenge in model egalitarian societies. A population of 100 agents inhabited a landscape of 20x20 squares containing five sources of food. Agents moved about the landscape in search of food, shared, stole, mated, produced offspring, and ultimately died of old age. Violence and revenge reduced the survival probability of the population and, for surviving populations, replaced hunger as the second leading cause of death after old age. Excluding large segments of the population from violence and revenge significantly improved survival rates. Tolerance to transgressions reduced the number of agents killed in revenge attacks. Higher population density increased the number of revenge deaths but also increased the survival rate of the total population. Decreasing the food supply for a fixed initial population resulted in more deaths due to violence and revenge. Flight from known aggressors enhanced the survival of the total population, at the expense of social cohesion. When killing had a positive social value the survival rate of the total population increased as the number of revenge killings decreased. These results are discussed in the context of ethnographic observations of a number of egalitarian societies.
ER -